A summary of the guidelines with respect to the evaluation and diagnostic methods
adopted in patients with IC are summarised in the following table. 1
Clinical Markers for IC
Markers reflect the effects of the underlying disease process. They enable an early
identification, early intervention and delay in progression of the disease. They
could be beneficial in differentiating IC from other diseases with overlapping symptoms.
Proteoglycans are important markers in the pathogenesis of IC. They serve as receptors
for bacterial attachment and also play a role in the regulation of cell growth.
The glycoprotein GP-51, which is found on the transitional epithelium of the urinary
bladder, inhibits binding by a variety of bacteria. The mean urine levels of GP-51
in IC patients are found to be lower as compared with controls. Bladder biopsies
also show a decreased staining for GP-51 in patients with IC.
Antiproliferative activity is present more significantly in patient with IC. These
inhibit primary bladder epithelial cell proliferation. In addition, urine of patients
with IC shows a decrease in the levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor
(HB-EBF) and an increase in epidermal growth factor. 2, 3